On job training (OJT) is a type of skill development where an worker learns how to do the work through hands-on experience. This is in contrast to skill formation that is purely cognitive or perceptual. OJT generally gives the trainee the opportunity to work in the same place and with the same equipment that will be used regularly which can make it an efficient approach to learning new things. It can also be a useful tool to helping unemployed people develop new job skills.
On job training uses the regular or existing workplace tools, machines, documents, equipment, knowledge and skills necessary for an employee to learn to effectively perform his or her job. It occurs within the normal working environment an employee will experience on the job. It may occur as the employee performs actual work or it may occur elsewhere within the workplace using training rooms, training work stations, or training equipment. On-the-job training is most frequently supplied by another employee who can competently perform the job that he or she is teaching.
On the job training is occasionally performed by an external provider as in the case of specialized equipment. In another example, a vendor trains a marketing system a group of employees is adapting to their own work procedures. While the goal of OJT is often to teach basic workplace skills, it also instils aspects of the workplace culture and performance expectations in the new employee. OJT is also the approach organizations use to provide new employee on boarding information.
OJT Development Techniques
OJT employs one or more of the following four techniques:
Coaching-This one interaction is usually done by a supervisor or someone outside the company, and is often prescriptive and corrective in nature. It helps the trainee understand their strengths, weakness, and areas of improvement, and tends to be applied for a fixed amount of time until the employee is deemed proficient.
Mentoring- This too is an ongoing one technique that''s usually done by a more experienced company executive or supervisor. The mentor works with the trainee to find their strengths, weaknesses, and areas of improvement. The mentor provides feedback and guidance, and points out areas that may have been overlooked.
Job Rotation-This approach allows trainees to practice and become proficient in various aspects of the work at hand, or different roles within the company. It helps employees because they are exposed to different work areas and learn about various company functions. (It''s also a great opportunity for employees to try out different functions, to see what they like or don''t.) The company also benefits, because job rotation diversifies worker skill sets in critical areas, and helps the company respond to unforeseen events like vacations, flu epidemics, and catastrophes. Job rotation also fosters organization-wide goal- and objective-sharing, because employees better understand each other''s job responsibilities.
Job Instruction Techniques-There are many great online resources to help you plan, prepare, and implement on-the-job training. But most models ask trainers to plan, present, trial, and follow up. The plan consists of a written breakdown of the work and of your training objectives. In the trial stage, the plan is presented to the trainee(s), who are asked to try it out…with regular follow up during the process. There are variants to this method and it can be either streamlined or made more complex, depending upon the business case and the tasks to be learned.